Professor Geoffrey Leech

Professor Geoffrey Leech

Emeritus

Lancaster University
Bailrigg
Lancaster
United Kingdom
LA1 4YL


Location: County South

Affiliations

PaSTY - Pragmatics and Stylistics Research Group
UCREL - University Centre for Computer Corpus Research on Language
Quantum Technology Centre

His main research area is English linguistics. Since 1970 he has been engaged in research on computer corpora, including the compilation of the LOB Corpus and the BNC (British National Corpus). Corpus linguistics over the decades has converged with English grammar, another of his major research interests. Apart from this, he has worked on pragmatics, where his interest has above all been in the linguistic theory of politeness. Recently he has returned to literary stylistics/poetics, a field to which he contributed from the 1960s, and on which he has collaborated with Lancaster colleague Mick Short.

Profile

Posts

He was Professor of Linguistics and Modern English Language at Lancaster University from 1974 to 1996. He then became Research Professor in English Linguistics. He has been Emeritus Professor in the Department of Linguistics and English Language, Lancaster University, since 2002.

Publications

[See downloadable publications below] He has written, co-authored or co-edited over 30 books and over 120 articles and papers in the areas of English grammar, literary stylistics, semantics, computational linguistics, corpus linguistics and pragmatics. They include:

· English in Advertising: A Linguistic Study of Advertising in Great Britain (1966)

· A Linguistic Guide to English Poetry (1969)

· Meaning and the English Verb (1971, 2nd edn. 1987; 3rd edn. 2004)

· Semantics (1974; 2nd edn. 1981)

· A Communicative Grammar of English (with J. Svartvik) (1975, 2nd edn. 1994, 3rd edn. 2002)

· Style in Fiction: A Linguistic Introduction to English Fictional Prose (with M. Short) (1981; 2nd edn. 2007)

· Principles of Pragmatics (1983)

· A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language (with R. Quirk, S. Greenbaum and J. Svartvik) (1985)

· Spoken English on Computer: Transcription, Mark-up and Application (ed. with G. Myers and J. Thomas) (1995)

· Corpus Annotation: Linguistic Information from Computer Text Corpora (ed. with R. Garside and T. McEnery) (1997)

· Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English (with D. Biber, S. Johansson , S. Conrad and E. Finegan) (1999)

· An A-Z of English Grammar and Usage (with B. Cruickshank and R. Ivanic) (2001)

· Word Frequencies in Written and Spoken English: based on the British National Corpus (with P. Rayson and A. Wilson) (2001)

· Longman Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English (with D. Biber and S. Conrad) (2002)

· A Glossary of English Grammar (2006)

· English - One Tongue, Many Voices (with J. Svartvik) (2006)

· Language in Literature: Style and Foregrounding (2008)

· Change in Contemporary English: A Grammatical Study (with M. Hundt, Ch. Mair and N.Smith) (2009)

Full details of these and other publications, including articles and book chapters, can be found in the curriculum vitae which is downloadable in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format.

Research

A. Corpus Compilation and Annotation

1. Over the past forty years a major research interest of Geoff Leech has been the use of computer corpora for the analysis and processing of the English Language. This began in 1970 when he started to build a 1,000,000-word corpus of British English matching as closely as possible the Brown Corpus of written American English, which had recently been completed. The project led eventually (with the help of Stig Johansson and others) to the completion and 'publication' of the Lancaster-Oslo/Bergen (LOB) Corpus in 1978. After this, with Roger Garside, he worked on the word-class tagging of the LOB Corpus. [Research supported by Longman, the British Academy, and the SSRC.]

2. In 1991-1995 he was leader of the Lancaster team as part of the consortium which built the British National Corpus (1991-1995), the well-known 100,000,000-word corpus of modern English written texts and spoken transcriptions: http://info.ox.ac.uk/bnc/. Lancaster was responsible for the word-class tagging of the whole BNC. Later (1995-1999), he worked with Nick Smith on the improvement of the BNC's word-class tagging, for a second, world-wide release of the corpus (BNC-World) in 2000. [Research supported by the EPSRC] Website: http://ucrel.lancs.ac.uk/projects.html#bnc

3. From 1999 to 2008 he worked with Nick Smith (Lancaster, Salford), Christian Mair (Freiburg) and Marianne Hundt (Heidelberg, Zurich) on the word-class tagging and grammatical analysis of the Freiburg-Lancaster-Oslo/Bergen ('FLOB') and Freiburg-Brown ('Frown') Corpora. These corpora of British and American written English match the LOB and Brown Corpora except that they contain extracts from publications of 1991 and 1992, instead of 1961. This allows researchers to track changes in the use of English grammar over a thirty-year period, as well as to make controlled contemporary comparisons between American and British English. One further extension of this project was the compilation of a corpus of British English over the period 1928-1934, reaching preliminary completion in 2007. This was provisionally entitled the 'Lancaster-1931 Corpus', but is now known as 'BLOB-1931' (B-LOB='before LOB'). It has enabled a further diachronic comparison of corpora to track changes in the period prior to that of the Brown and LOB Corpora. [Research supported by the AHRB, the British Academy and the Leverhulme Trust]. (On further recent additions to the Brown 'family' of corpora, see http://www.ling.lancs.ac.uk/profiles/Paul-Baker/ on the AmE06 and BE06 corpora of 21st-century English.)

4. In 2001-2002 Geoff worked with Martin Weisser on the speech-act annotation of a corpus of approximately 1,000 goal-oriented service dialogues. The dialogues include the OASIS Corpus of dialogues made available for this research by British Telecom, and telephone call centre dialogues made available by The Trainline. [The research was supported by the EPSRC].

B. Corpus-based Study of English Grammar

Linked with the research topics of corpus compilation and annotation, Geoff Leech has been pursuing a number of different avenues of research on the corpus-based study of English grammar.

1. He participated in a seven-year project sponsored by the publishers Longman and led by Doug Biber (Northern Arizona University), to produce a 1200-page corpus-based grammar of English, focusing on American and British English and on the four registers of conversation, fiction writing, news writing, and academic writing. The book was eventually published in 1999 as Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English (LGSWE) by Biber, Johansson, Leech, Conrad and Finegan. Three strengths of the book are (a) its extensive investigation of grammatical frequency, (b) its detailed study of differences in the use of grammar in different varieties of language, and (c) its thorough exemplification of present-day English grammar through the citation of thousands of corpus examples. After the publication of this 'big' grammar, three members of the team (Biber, Conrad and Leech) wrote a shorter students' version, Longman Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English, together with an accompanying Workbook.

2. Since his most innovative involvement in LGSWE was working on Chapter 14 'The grammar of conversation', he became particularly interested in how corpora throw light on the nature of grammar in the spoken language. He published three articles and one book chapter on this topic in 1998-2001, perhaps the most important being 'Grammars of spoken English: New implications of corpus-oriented research', Language Learning (2000) 50: 3, 675-724.

3. Out of the improved word-class tagging of the BNC (see A.2 above) came the opportunity to produce a book, with Paul Rayson and Andrew Wilson, on Word Frequency in Written and Spoken English (2001). Crucial to this book was the grammatical tagging of the BNC so that normalized frequencies - allowing for a small margin of error - could be assigned to lexemes and their grammatical variants. The BNC re-tagging also allowed frequencies, including frequencies of grammatical word classes, to be compared across different varieties of language in the corpus (notably spoken v. written English). This was the most advanced word frequency book of the English language yet published.

4. In collaboration with Christian Mair, Marianne Hundt and Nick Smith, he has worked on the comparable corpora mentioned in A.4 above, as well as other data, to investigate recent changes in English grammar. His publications in this area include 'Modality on the move: the English modal auxiliaries 1961-1992', in Roberta Facchinetti, Manfred Krug and Frank Palmer (eds.) Modality in Contemporary English , Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 2003, pp. 223-240, and a series of articles and papers co-authored with Nick Smith. Geoff was the lead author of a corpus-based book on this subject, co-authored with M. Hundt, Ch. Mair and N. Smith, Change in Contemporary English: A Grammatical Study, published in 2009 by CUP.

C. Other Research Interests

1. Pragmatics has recently become one of his active research interests once again, after a gap of twenty years. This is partly through work on the compilation of a speech-act annotated corpus (A.4 above) and partly through a revival of interest in the pragmatics of polite communication: see 'Politeness: Is there an East-West divide?', Journal of Foreign Languages (Shanghai) 6 (2005) 3-31 . A revised version of this article, with the same title, appeared in Journal of Politeness Research 3.2 (2007) 167-206.

2. Stylistics is another area of interest which has tended to lapse in recent years: but in 2005 Geoff and his colleague Mick Short won the PALA 25 Silver Jubilee Prize for the 'most influential book in stylistics' since the founding of PALA (the Poetics and Linguistics Association) in 1980. The prize was awarded for their book Style in Fiction (Longman 1981). As a consequence of this, Leech and Short hosted 'SIFS' (a Style in Fiction symposium) at Lancaster in March 2006. The proceedings of the symposium were published in the journal Style (2007) in a special number (Vol. 41.2) devoted to new developments in the stylistics of fiction, edited by Short and Leech. In 2007 the authors produced a second edition of Style in Fiction for Longman. Geoff also published, with Pearson/Longman, a book entitled Language in Literature: Style and Foregrounding (2008), containing eight articles on the stylistic analysis of poetry, prose and drama published in the period 1965-1992, as well as four new chapters both theoretical and applied, including one on corpus stylistics.

Recent Talks

March 2010 - 1 July 2010: Lectures on politeness and on various aspects of recent grammatical change in English at Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman (March 2010) and at seven south German universities: Giessen, Augsburg, Munich, Eichstätt, Regensburg, Erlangen, Bamburg (June 2010).

11 August 2010: Plenary paper at the 4th Conference on Modality in English, Universidad Complutense, Madrid: 'Where have all the modals gone?'.

25 November 2010: Lecture at the University of St Andrews: 'How the grammar of English has been changing: Using comparable corpora to track the recent history of a language'.

1 April 2011: Plenary paper at the 20th Conference on Theoretical and Applied Linguistics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki: 'Growth and decline: How grammar has been changing in recent English.

16-24 June 2011: Lecture tour of five German Universities: Potsdam, Heidelberg, Mainz, Trier, Essen: lectures on politeness and on recent changes in English grammar.

7 July 2011: Lecture at the Conference of the International Pragmatics Association, University of Manchester: 'Pragmalinguistic vs. sociopragmatic politeness: A wrong turning in politeness theory?'.

19 August 2011: Keynote lecture at a symposium on corpus linguistics in honour of Jan Svartvik on his 80th birthday at Lund University, Sweden: 'Where have all the modals gone?'

22 September 2011: Keynote lecture at a conference on Style in Fiction Today, celebrating the 20th anniversary of the publication of Style in Fiction by G. Leech and M. Short: Université de Lyon 3, France: 'Unwanted messages: Spam e-mail as a new fictional genre of stylistic interest'.

29 September 2011: Keynote lecture at the Helsinki Corpus Festival, University of Helsinki: 'Decline and disappearance: the negative side of recent change in standard English.'

22-24 March 2012: Keynote lecture at the AELINCO International Conference on Corpus Linguistics at the University of Jaén, Spain: 'Why do linguistic forms decline (and disappear)? - The negative side of recent change in standard English.'

17 April 2012: Lecture at the English Department, University of Zurich: 'Where have all the modals gone? On the recent loss of frequency of English modal auxiliaries.'

13 May 2012: Lecture in the Jelinek series, Centre for Mathematical Linguistics, Charles University, Prague: 'Decline and disappearance: The negative ide of change in standard English.

14 May 2012: Keynote lecture, Department of English Studies, Charles University, Prague: at a symposium celebrating the 100th anniversary of the founding of English studies at Prague: 'The changing English verb phrase: a study of comparable corpora'.

Recent Publications

Geoffrey Leech (2011) Selected Works of Geoffrey Leech on Applied Linguistics. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.

Paul Rayson, Sebastian Hoffmann and Geoffrey Leech (eds.) (2011) Methodological and Historical Dimensions of Corpus Linguistics. Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English, Vol. 6. http://www.helsinki.fi/varieng/journal/volumes/06/

Sebastian Hoffmann, Paul Rayson and Geoffrey Leech (eds.) (2012) English Corpus Linguistics: Looking Back, Moving Forward. Amsterdam: Rodopi. Papers from the 30thInternational Conference on English Language Research on Computerized Corpora(ICAME 30), Lancaster, UK, 27-31 May 2009. pp. vi + 266.

Geoffrey Leech (2010) 'Grammar on the move: Recent changes in English grammatical usage.' In JACET Summer Seminar Proceedings 9: English Grammar 1900-2000 and Politeness in English, Tokyo: The Japan Association of College English Teachers, 1-11. (A revised version of 99)

Geoffrey Leech (2010) 'Analysing literature through language: Two Shakespearean speeches.' In Daniel McIntyre and Beatrix Busse (eds.) Language and Style: In Honour of Mick Short. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp.15-31.

Geoffrey Leech (2011) 'Frequency, corpora and language learning.' In: Fanny Meunier, Sylvie De Cock, Gaëtanelle Gilquin and Magali Paquot (eds), A Taste for Corpora. In Honour of Sylviane Granger. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, pp. 7-32.

Geoffrey Leech (2011) 'The modals ARE declining: Reply to Neil Millar's "Modal verbs in TIME: Frequency changes 1923-2006", International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 14:2 (2009), 191-220, International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 16:4, 547-564.

Geoffrey Leech (2011) 'Principles and applications of corpus linguistics'. In Viana, V., Zyngier, S. and Barnbrook, G. (eds.) Perspectives on Corpus Linguistics Controversies. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Geoffrey Leech, Nicholas Smith and Paul Rayson (2012) 'English style on the move: Changing stylistic norms in the twentieth century.' In M. Kytö (ed.) English Corpus Linguistics: Crossing Paths. Amsterdam: Rodopi, pp. 69-98.

Interviews:

Jelisaveta Milojević (2011) 'Interview: Geoffrey Leech "Leave no stone unturned I the search for linguistic reality', BELLS (Belgrade English Language and Literature Studies) 2 (2011), 321-333.

Liu Feng-guang, Lin Xiao-ying and Xu Jun (2009) 'Prof. Leech's View on Pragmatics and Stylistics', Foreign Languages and their Teaching, 1, 17-21.

Paloma Núñez Pertejo (2007) 'An interview with Geoffrey Leech: Santiago de Compostela, June 9, 2006.' Atlantis, 29.1 (June 2007), 143-156.

Career Details

Assistant Lecturer, University College London - 1962-4

Harkness Fellow, Massachusetts Institute of Technology - 1964-5

Lecturer, University College London - 1965-9

Reader in English Language, Lancaster University - 1969-74

Professor of Linguistics and Modern English Language, Lancaster University - 1974-1996

Research Professor in English Linguistics, Lancaster University - 1996-2001

Emeritus Professor of English Linguistics, Lancaster University - from 2002

For full details see Geoffrey Neil Leech - An Academic Autobiography (PDF) 12 June 2009

Additional Information

Downloadable publications

Leech, G. (1998) 'English grammar in conversation'. In A. Wilson and J. Schmied (eds.) Language Learning and Computers: Proceedings of the Chemnitz Symposium 20-21 February 1998.pp. 1-10.

Leech, G. (2001), 'The role of frequency in ELT: New corpus evidence brings a re-appraisal', in Hu Wenzhong (ed.) ELT in China 2001: Papers presented at the 3rd International Symposium on ELT in China', Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, pp. 1-23.

Leech, G. (2004), 'Recent grammatical change in English: data, description, theory', in K. Aijmer and B. Altenberg (eds.), Advances in Corpus Linguistics: Papers from the 23rd International Conference on English Language Research on Computerized Corpora (ICAME 23) Göteborg 22-26 May 2002, Amsterdam: Rodopi, pp. 61-81.

Leech, G. (2005) 'Politeness: Is there an East-West divide?', Journal of Foreign Languages, Shanghai, 6, 3-31. A revised version has been published in: Journal of Politeness Research, 3.2 (2006), 167-206.

Leech, G. (2007) 'The unique heritage of place-names in North West England.' In Y. Nakao (ed.) Text, Language and Interpretation: Essays in Honour of Keiko Ikegami, pp. 43-62.

Leech, G. (2007) 'New resources, or just better old ones? The Holy Grail of representativeness,' in M. Hundt, N. Nesselhauf and C. Biewer (eds.) Corpus Linguistics and the Web, Amsterdam: Rodopi, pp. 133-49.

Leech, G. (2007) 'Style in fiction revisited: the beginning of Great Expectations.' Style, 41.2, 117-132.

Leech, G. and Smith, N. (2005), 'Extending the possibilities of corpus-based research on English in the twentieth century: a prequel to LOB and FLOB', ICAME Journal, 29: 83-98.

Leech, G. and Smith, N. (2006) 'Recent grammatical change in written English 1961-1992: some preliminary findings of a comparison of American with British English.' In Renouf, A. and Kehoe, A. (ed.), The Changing Face of Corpus Linguistics, Amsterdam: Rodopi, pp. 186-204.

Leech, G. and Weisser, M. (2003) 'Generic speech act annotation for task-oriented dialogues', in D. Archer, P. Rayson, A. Wilson and T. McEnery (eds.) Proceedings of the Corpus Linguistics 2003 conference, University Centre for Computer Corpus Research on Language, Technical Papers 16.1, pp. 441-6.

Leech, G., M. Weisser, A. Wilson and M. Grice (1998) Survey and Guidelines for the Representation and Annotationof Dialogue.LE-EAGLES-WP4-4. Integrated Resources Working Group.

Mair, C., Hundt, M., Leech, G., and Smith, N. (2003), 'Short term diachronic shifts in part-of-speech frequencies: a comparison of the tagged LOB and F-LOB corpora', International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 7: 2, 245-264.

Mair, C. and Leech, G. (2006) 'Current change in English syntax', Chapter 14 in B. Aarts and A. MacMahon (eds.) TheHandbook of English Linguistics, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 318-342.

Honorary Fellowship and Celebratory Conference

In March 2009, Geoffrey Leech was awarded an Honorary Fellowship of Lancaster University, in recognition of his service and contribution to the University, particularly in research. The year 2009 also marked the fortieth anniversary of his first appointment at Lancaster University.

In May 2009, Geoffrey Leech was one of the organizers hosting a celebratory conference held at the Lancaster House Hotel. This was the Thirtieth Conference of ICAME (the International Computer Archive of Modern and Medieval English), of which Geoffrey was one of the founding members in 1977. ICAME, the world's oldest association for research in corpus linguistics, in a sense began at Lancaster University in 1970, when Geoffrey started CAMET (Computer Archive of Modern English Texts), one of the aims of which was to build the first computer corpus of British English, modelled on the Brown Corpus of American English which had recently been completed at Brown University, in the USA. This eventually led to the completion of the LOB (Lancaster-Oslo/Bergen) Corpus, with the help of Stig Johansson (Professor of English Language at Oslo) and two Norwegian Universities. To convince copyright-holders to give free permission for the use of 500 text samples in the corpus, it was decided that an international organization, based outside the UK, would stand more chance of success than the rather small and obscure British university of Lancaster, as it was at that time. Ultimately this plan succeeded, and CAMET became ICAME. The conference in May 2009 contained an opening 'event' and a small exhibition entitled 'The coming of ICAME', in which the founding and the history of the association were celebrated. Apart from Geoffrey Leech, two other founding fathers of ICAME participated: Stig Johansson (Oslo) and Jan Svartvik (Lund). The chief organizer of the conference was Sebastian Hoffmann, who has now moved from Lancaster to a chair at the University of Trier in Germany.

Other Interests and Hobbies

Playing the piano (especially in chamber music groups) and the church organ. Singing in choirs. Fell-walking (the fells have to be small ones these days!).

2010

Analysing literature through language: two Shakespearean speeches.

Leech, G. 2010 Language and style: in honour of Mick Short. McIntyre, D. & Busse, B. (eds.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 15-31 17 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

Grammar on the move: recent changes in English grammatical usage.

Leech, G. 2010 JACET summer seminar proceedings 9: English grammar 1900-2000 and Politeness in English. Tokyo: The Japan Association of College English Teachers, p. 1-11 11 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

2009

Corpus linguistics.

Leech, G. 2009 The Routledge Linguistics Encyclopedia. Malmkjaer, K. (ed.). London: Routledge, p. 104-113 10 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

Grammar: clauses (and sentences).

Leech, G. 2009 English language: description, variation and context. Culpeper, J., Katamba, F., Kerswill, P., Wodak, R. & McEnery, T. (eds.). Basingstoke: Palgrave, p. 151-169 19 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

Grammar: phrases (and clauses).

Leech, G. 2009 English language: description, variation and context. Culpeper, J., Katamba, F., Kerswill, P., Wodak, R. & McEnery, T. (eds.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 130-150 21 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

Grammar: words (and phrases).

Leech, G. 2009 English language: description, variation and context. Culpeper, J., Katamba, F., Kerswill, P., Wodak, R. & McEnery, T. (eds.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 111-129 19 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

Change and constancy in linguistic change: how grammatical usage in written English evolved in the period 1931-1991.

Leech, G. & Smith, N. 2009 Corpus linguistics: refinements and reassessments. Renouf, A. & Kehoe, A. (eds.). Amsterdam: Rodopi, p. 173-200 28 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

Change in contemporary English: a grammatical study.

Leech, G., Hundt, M., Mair, C. & Smith, N. 2009 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Research output: Book/Report/ProceedingsBook

The coming of ICAME.

Leech, G. & Johansson, S. 2009 In: ICAME Journal. 33, p. 5-20 16 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

2008

Foreword.

Leech, G. 2008 Corpus linguistics with BNCweb: a practical guide. Hoffmann, S., Evert, S., Smith, N., Lee, D. & Prytz, Y. B. (eds.). 6 ed. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, p. xiii-xvi (English corpus linguistics;)

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

Language in literature: style and foregrounding.

Leech, G. 2008 Harlow: Pearson Longman. 222 p.

Research output: Book/Report/ProceedingsBook

2007

The unique heritage of place-names in North West England.

Leech, G. 2007 Text, Language and Interpretation: Essays in Honour of Keiko Ikegami. Nakao, Y. (ed.). Tokyo: Eihoosha, p. 42-61 20 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

Politeness: is there an East-West divide?

Leech, G. 07/2007 In: Journal of Politeness Research. 3, 2, p. 167-206 40 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Style in fiction revisited: the beginning of Great Expectations.

Leech, G. 2007 In: Style. 41, 2, p. 117-132 16 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Longman Communication 3000 and the Longman Defining Vocabulary.

Bullon, S. & Leech, G. 2007 Longman Communication 3000. Harlow: Pearson Longman, p. 1-7 7 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

New resources, or just better old ones? The Holy Grail of representativeness.

Leech, G. 2007 Corpus Linguistics and the Web. Hundt, M., Nesselhauf, N. & Biewer, C. (eds.). Amsterdam: Rodopi, p. 133-149 17 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

Style in fiction: a linguistic introduction to English fictional prose.

Leech, G. & Short, M. 2007 Harlow: Pearson Longman. 404 p. (English language series)

Research output: Book/Report/ProceedingsBook

2006

Current change in English syntax.

Mair, C. & Leech, G. 2006 The Handbook of English Linguistics. Aarts, B. & MacMahon, A. (eds.). Oxford: Blackwell, p. 318-342 25 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

Recent grammatical change in written English 1961-1992: some preliminary findings of a comparison of American with British English.

Leech, G. & Smith, N. 2006 The Changing Face of Corpus Linguistics. Renouf, A. & Kehoe, A. (eds.). Amsterdam: Rodopi, p. 186-204 19 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

English: One tongue many voices.

Svartvik, J. & Leech, G. 2006 Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. 287 p.

Research output: Book/Report/ProceedingsBook

A Glossary of English Grammar.

Leech, G. 2006 Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. 133 p.

Research output: Book/Report/ProceedingsBook

English grammar for today: a new introduction.

Leech, G., Deuchar, M. & Hoogenraad, R. 2006 Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 238 p.

Research output: Book/Report/ProceedingsBook

Exploring grammatical change across the twentieth century: A backward step permits further advance

Smith, N., Leech, G. & Rayson, P. 05/2006

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference paper

2005

Changing English across the twentieth century: enhancements to an existing family of corpora.

Smith, N., Rayson, P., Leech, G. & Wynne, M. 2005 Proceedings of the Digital Research for the Humanities Conference (DRH 2005). Lancaster: Lancaster University

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

Politeness: is there an East-West divide?

Leech, G. 2005 In: Wai Guo Yu: Journal of Foreign Languages. 6, p. 3-31 29 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Grammar on the move: recent changes in English grammatical usage.

Leech, G. 2005 Cultural matrix reloaded: Romanian society for English and American studies: 7th international conference. Croitoru, E., Praisler, M. & Tuchel, D. (eds.). Bucharest: Editura Didactica si Pedagogica R.A., p. 11-22 12 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

Adding linguistic annotation.

Leech, G. 2005 Developing linguistic corpora: a guide to good practice. Wynne, M. (ed.). Oxford: Oxbow Books, p. 17-29 13 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

Changing English across the twentieth century: enhancements to an existing family of corpora

Smith, N., Rayson, P., Leech, G. & Wynne, M. 01/2005

Research output: Contribution to conferencePoster

Extending the possibilities of corpus-based research on English in the twentieth century: a prequel to LOB and FLOB.

Leech, G. & Smith, N. 04/2005 In: ICAME Journal. 29, p. 83-98 16 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

2004

Recent grammatical change in English: data, description, theory.

Leech, G. 2004 Advances in corpus linguistics: papers from the 23rd international conference on English language research on computerised corpora (ICAME 23). Aijmer, K. & Altenberg, B. (eds.). Amsterdam: Rodopi, p. 61-81 21 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

A new Gray’s anatomy of English grammar: review article on R. Huddleston and G. Pullum, ‘The Cambridge grammar of the English language’, 2002.

Leech, G. 05/2004 In: English Language and Linguistics. 8, 1, p. 121-147 27 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Meaning and the English verb.

Leech, G. 2004 Harlow: Pearson Longman. 141 p.

Research output: Book/Report/ProceedingsBook

Key category analysis of a spoken corpus for EAP

Jones, M., Rayson, P. & Leech, G. 06/2004

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference paper

2003

An anatomy of politeness in communication.

Leech, G. 2003 In: International Journal of Pragmatics. 14, p. 101-123 23 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Towards an anatomy of politeness in communication.

Leech, G. 2003 In: International Journal of Pragmatics. 14, p. 101-123 23 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Short term diachronic shifts in part-of-speech frequencies: a comparison of the tagged LOB and F-LOB corpora.

Mair, C., Hundt, M., Leech, G. & Smith, N. 2003 In: International Journal of Corpus Linguistics. 7, 2, p. 245-264 20 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Pragmatics and dialogue.

Leech, G. 2003 The Oxford handbook of computational linguistics. Mitkov, R. (ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 136-156 21 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

Generic speech act annotation for task-oriented dialogues.

Leech, G. & Weisser, M. 2003 Proceedings of the corpus linguistics 2003 conference. Archer, D., Rayson, P., Wilson, A. & McEnery, A. M. (eds.). Lancaster: Centre for Computer Corpus Research on Language Technical Papers, Lancaster University, p. 441-446 6 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

Modality on the move: the English modal auxiliaries 1961-1992.

Leech, G. 2003 Modality in contemporary English. Facchinetti, R., Krug, M. & Palmer, F. (eds.). 44 ed. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, p. 223-240 18 p. (Topics in English linguistics)

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

2002

A student grammar of spoken and written English: workbook.

Conrad, S., Biber, D. & Leech, G. 2002 London: Longman.

Research output: Book/Report/ProceedingsBook

A communicative grammar of English.

Leech, G. & Svartvik, J. 2002 London: Longman. 440 p.

Research output: Book/Report/ProceedingsBook

Geoffrey Leech.

Leech, G. 2002 Linguistics in Britain: personal histories. Brown, K. & Law, V. (eds.). 36 ed. Oxford: Blackwell, p. 155-169 15 p. (Publications of the Philological Society)

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

A student grammar of spoken and written English.

Biber, D., Conrad, S. & Leech, G. 2002 London: Longman. 487 p.

Research output: Book/Report/ProceedingsBook

Grammatical word class variation within the British National Corpus sampler

Rayson, P., Wilson, A. & Leech, G. 2002 New frontiers of corpus research: papers from the 21st international conference on English language research on computerised corpora. Peters, P., Collins, P. & Smith, A. (eds.). 36 ed. Amsterdam: Rodopi, p. 295-306 12 p. (Language and computers)

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

2001

The role of frequency in ELT: New corpus evidence brings a re-appraisal.

Leech, G. 2001 ELT in China 2001: Papers presented at the 3rd International Symposium on ELT in China. Hu, W. (ed.). Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, p. 1-23 23 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

The grammar of spoken English.

Leech, G. 2001 Studies in Cross-cultural Communication – The Message Sent and the Message Received. Hawkes, P. (ed.). Osaka: Osaka International University for Women, p. 1-18 18 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

Corpora.

Leech, G. 2001 The linguistics encyclopaedia. Malmkjaer, K. (ed.). London: Routledge, p. 84-93 10 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

An A-Z of English grammar and usage.

Leech, G., Cruickshank, B. & Ivanic, R. 2001 London: Longman. 636 p.

Research output: Book/Report/ProceedingsBook

Language, culture and politeness.

Leech, G. 2001 Horizons of the humanities: thoughts and critical theories of the future. Korea: The Institute of Humanities Research, Pusan National University, p. 107-129 23 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

Language behaviour from the viewpoint of communicative grammar.

Leech, G. 2001 In: Selected Research Papers in Applied Linguistics. 3

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Word frequencies in written and spoken English: based on the British National Corpus.

Leech, G., Rayson, P. & Wilson, A. 2001 London: Longman. 304 p.

Research output: Book/Report/ProceedingsBook

2000

What kind of English should we teach? – a corpus linguistics perspective.

Leech, G. 2000 In: Selected Research Papers in Applied Linguistics. 2, p. 3-15 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Same grammar or different grammar? Contrasting approaches to the grammar of spoken discourse.

Leech, G. 2000 Discourse in social life. Sarangi, S. & Coulthard, M. (eds.). London: Longman, p. 48-65 18 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

Grammars of spoken English: new outcomes of corpus-oriented research.

Leech, G. 12/2000 In: Language Learning. 50, 4, p. 675-724 50 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Corpus linguistics and the British national corpus.

Leech, G. 2000 In: English Corpus Studies. 7, p. 1-20 20 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Representation and annotation of dialogue.

Grice, M., Leech, G., Weisser, M. & Wilson, A. 2000 Handbook of multimodal and spoken dialogue systems: resources, terminology and product evaluation. Gibbon, D., Mertins, I. & Moore, R. K. (eds.). SECS 5 ed. Boston, Mass.: Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 1-101 101 p. (The Kluwer international series in engineering and computer science)

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

1999

Standards for Tagsets.

Leech, G. & Wilson, A. 1999 Syntactic Wordclass Tagging. van Halteren, H. (ed.). 9 ed. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 55-80 26 p. (Text, speech, and language technology)

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

Guidelines and standards for tagging.

Leech, G. & Wilson, A. 1999 Syntactic wordclass tagging. van Halteren, H. (ed.). 9 ed. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 55-80 26 p. (Text, speech, and language technology)

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

The use of tagging.

Leech, G. & Smith, N. 1999 Syntactic wordclass tagging. van Halteren, H. (ed.). 9 ed. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 23-36 14 p. (Text, speech, and language technology)

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

Moving towards perfection: the learners’ (electronic) dictionary of the future.

Leech, G. & Nesi, H. 1999 The perfect learners’ dictionary(?). Herbst, T. & Popp, K. (eds.). 95 ed. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 320 p. (Lexicographica. Series maior)

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

The distribution and function of vocatives in American and British English conversation.

Leech, G. 1999 Out of corpora: studies in honour of Stig Johansson. Hasselgård, H. & Oksefjell, S. (eds.). Amsterdam: Rodopi, p. 107-118 12 p.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

Longman grammar of spoken and written English.

Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S. & Finegan, E. 1999 London: Longman.

Research output: Book/Report/ProceedingsBook

1998

English grammar in conversation.

Leech, G. 02/1998 Proceedings of the Chemnitz Symposium 20-21 February 1998. Schmied, J. & Wilson, A. (eds.). Chemnitz University of Technology

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

1997

The odds in favour of the genitive: a study of gradience in English

Leech, G., Francis, B. & Xu, X. 1997 The Locus of meaning: papers in honour of Yoshihiko Ikeganu. Yamanaka, K. & Ohori, T. (eds.). Tokyo: Kuroshi

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter (peer-reviewed)

The comparison of adjectives in recent British English.

Culpeper, J. & Leech, G. N. 1997 To Explain the Present: Studies in the Changing English Language in Honour of Matti Rissanen. Nevalainen, T. & Kahlas-Tarkka, L. (eds.). 52 ed. Helsinki: Memoires de la Societe Neophilologique de Helsinki, p. 353-373 21 p. (Mémoires de la Société néophilologique de Helsinki)

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter

Social differentiation in the use of English vocabulary: some analyses of the conversational component of the British National Corpus

Rayson, P., Leech, G. & Hodges, M. 1997 In: International Journal of Corpus Linguistics. 2, 1, p. 133-152 20 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

1994

The use of computer corpora in the textual demonstrability of gradience in linguistic categories.

Leech, G., Francis, B. & Xu, X. 1994 Continuity in Linguistic Semantics. Fuchs, C. & Victorri, B. (eds.). John Benjamins Publishing Company, p. 57-76 20 p. (Lingvisticæ Investigationes Supplementa; vol. 19)

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter (peer-reviewed)

1992

The automatic content analysis of spoken discourse.

Garside, R., Rayson, P., Leech, G., Wilson, A. & Thomas, J. A. 01/1992

Research output: Other contribution

The Automatic Content Analysis of Spoken Discourse. Final Report on SERC-DTI Project Nr. GR-F/36385 IED4-1-1143.

Garside, R., Leech, G., Thomas, J. A., Wilson, A. & Rayson, P. 01/1992 Lancaster University

Research output: Working paper

 

 

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